Wednesday, August 18, 2021

Mohen-jo-dado Among the towns found in the Harappan culture

   Mohen-jo-dado Among the towns found in the Harappan culture

 Town Planning of Ancient India : India has been an expert in town planning since ancient times, we can consider Dholavira. This is bigger than the archeological excavations, the best example of which we have come to the town light in Khadirbet of Bhachau taluka of Kutch.  The town has three main divisions. The citadel of the ruling officers (Citadel). The upper town which houses the residences of other officials. It is protected by strong walls all around. It has four main doors. The upper town also has defensive walls. Houses with two to five rooms have also been found here. The lower town houses are mainly made of hand-made bricks.

 A large bead factory has also been found here. Numerous specimens of pierced pearls and beads have been found, indicating the productivity of the area. From the ruins obtained from here, this town is considered to be a major center of trade and commerce in ancient times. Remains found here mainly include copper smelters, various implements, conch as well as metal bracelets, various types of beads, rings, gold ornaments, etc. Mohen-jo-dado Among the towns found in the Harappan culture, Mohen-jo-dado was the best in terms of town planning. 

The houses here were built on high terraces to protect them from floods and moisture. The houses of the rich had two storeys and five to seven rooms, while the houses of the lower classes had one storey and three rooms. The doors of the houses fell inside (in the alley) instead of falling on the main roads. The fort and the whole town around the elevated part. The surrounding wall was formed. 

Roads: The roads here were mostly 9.75 m wide, the major roads met at right angles. The roads were wide enough for many vehicles to pass at once.  Furthermore, it was designed in such a way that the wind blew away the debris.  The identical pits at a certain distance from the side of the road are presumed to be the pillars used for night lighting. In short, these roads can be said to be very convenient and modern.  Sewer planning: Sewer planning, which is not found anywhere else in the ancient culture of the world, was a prominent feature of Mohenjo-daro. 

The water from the houses flowed into the gutters below the road. From there a large stream flowed out of the city. Every house had a well. If a certain surface was filled with water to some extent, it would automatically flow from a small gutter to a large gutter. Gutter covers were also kept at some distance. This type of sewerage scheme is not found anywhere else except in the Mediterranean island of Kit. In view of this, respect for the concept of public health and well-being of the people does not go unnoticed.  

Public Baths: A huge bath has also been found in Mohenjo-daro. It is 54.80 meters long and 32.90 meters wide.  The intermediate nankund is 12.10 m long, 7 m wide and 2.42 m deep. SOL, There are changing rooms around the shower.  Public buildings: Two public buildings have been found in Mohenjo-daro. These buildings are believed to have been used as meeting halls, entertainment, rooms, administration or state barns. A row of 20 houses (mostly a soldier barracks) was also found here. 

The sculptures in Tetijka - architecture hence all these samples of town planning - are silent witnesses to the thousands of years old art of India.  Singing the praises of Indian art, this excellent heritage is giving unparalleled fame to Indian culture all over the world and will continue to do so in the future as well. Art of the Maurya period: In the Vedic period, there is no architecture except a small chotra at the time of Yajnayagadi, but during the Maurya period, stupas, monasteries and other types of religious architecture of Buddhism can be seen. ‘Soup’: Various relics of the body of Lord Buddha - hair, teeth, bones, ashes, etc. were placed in a basket and an oval masonry of stone or brick was made over it. 

 It is called "Ghee". There is historical evidence that about ten stupas were built before the Mauryan period.  From Piprawa village in Basti district of Uttar Pradesh and Loria village in Champaran district of Bihar. The stupas found in 1905 appear to be pre-Mauryan.

 Evidence of this art dates back to the time of the pious and amateur emperor Ashoka. This was the era of the wonderful Jahojalali of Buddhism and the development of sculptural architecture. Devni Mori, Boria Stupa and Itwa Soup are the three stupas found in Gujarat.